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Full text of "Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin. Number 10, April 1905"

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Entered, Atiguit 37, !<>03V«t Philadelphia, Pa. , 

i,1-class matter, under A~ci oi Congress of July 16, l«94 


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GEORGE H. CLIFF, Treasurer 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, Secretary mid -Curator 


LESLIE W. MILLER, Principal, of the School 


M. E DAWSON, Associate Editor - 


for Hpril, nineteen Munoreo ano fin 

The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial, Art . . , 17 

The Pottery School . ''."-.. By Leon Volkmar 23 

Ancient Lace (Second Paper) . . . By Mrs. JOHN Harrison 26 

Tapestry {Second Paper) . . . .By Charles E. Dana 31 

Accessions from the. St. Louis Fair . . . . -35 

Editorial . . . . . . . . . -37 

Notes . . . . . . . . . . -39 



April i, 1905 


Number 10 



On July 20, 1875, a committee of prominent Philadelphians met at the office 
of James L. Claghorn, President of the Commercial Bank, for the purpose of 
taking steps toward the establishment of a museum of art in Philadelphia. Sub- 
sequent meetings were held at various places, resulting in a permanent organiza- 
tion, and on February 27, 1876, The Pennsylvania Museum and School of 
Industrial Art was chartered. 

On May 10, 1877, exactly one year after the inauguration of the great 
International Exhibition of 1876, the doors of the Museum were first thrown 
open to the public, Memorial Hall in Fairmount Park, the Art Gallery of the 
Centennial, having been originally designed for this purpose. During the early 
years a small admission fee was charged, but since January 1, 1881, its con- 
stantly increasing collections have been on exhibition, free to the public, every 
day in the year. 

The principal object which the projectors of this institution had in view 
was the development of the art industries of the State by means of exhibits of 
objects in all branches of industrial art. in connection with the furnishing of 
instruction in drawing, painting, modeling, designing, etc., through practical 


Appointed by State Senate Appointed by Appointed by Select Council Appointed by Common Council 


Appointed by Chairman Art Committee Chairman Museum Committee Chairman Finance Committee 


issociate Committee of Women 


Trustees of 
The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art 



schools, special libraries and otherwise, the instruction to be similar in its general 
features to that of the South Kensington Museum of London. 

The Board of Trustees consists of the Governor of the State and the Mayor 
of the city, ex-ofhciis, and twenty of Philadelphia's most 
prominent citizens, including representatives of the State 
Senate and House of Representatives, the Select and Com- 
mon Councils of the city and the Commissioners of Fair- 
mount Park, who have, through their public-spirited interest 
in the institution, their self-sacrificing efforts and liberal con- 
tributions, placed the Museum and School on their present 
high footing. 

The nucleus of the present extensive collections of the 
Museum consisted of some of the most valuable exhibits 
from the International Exhibition of 1876, many of them being 
presented by the exhibitors, while others were purchased with 
funds raised for the purpose. In 1882 the Museum received the first instalment 
of one of its most valuable gifts. This interesting collection was gathered 
together in Europe by Mrs. Bloomfield Moore and given to the Museum as a 
memorial of her husband. Mrs. Moore made the collection at a time when it 
was possible to secure rare and valuable objects of unquestioned genuineness. 
The collection covers the broadest field of industrial art, including examples of 
antique furniture, enamels, carved ivories, jewelry, metal work, glass, pottery, 
porcelain, early books, fans, textiles, costumes and paintings. 

Other donations of exhibits rapidly followed, the principal of which are the 
Dr. Robert H. Lamborn collection of early art, including a representative series 
of Mexican paintings ; the William S. Vaux, Dr. Robert H. Lamborn, Dr. F. W. 
Lewis and Mrs. Jones Wister collections of Etruscan, Cypriote, Egyptian and 
Greco-Roman antiquities ; the Hector Tyndale, Dr. Francis W. Lewis, Edward 
S. Clarke, Cornelia Thompson and Rev. Alfred Duane Pell collections of ceram- 
ics ; the John T. Morris collections of ancient and modern art. including the 
unique exhibit of American pottery and porcelain ; the Clarence P. Moore and 
Thomas Hockley collections of coins ; the Charles E. Dana collection of historic 
seals, and the Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth collection of Colonial relics. The Wilstach 
gallery of paintings occupies the large apartments in the 
western end of the building. In 1883 the Associate Commit- 
tee of Women, the outgrowth of the Women's Executive 
Committee of the Centennial Exposition, of which .Mrs. 
Elizabeth Duane Gillespie was the leading spirit, came into 
existence as an auxiliary to the Board of Trustees, and to the 
well-directed efforts and valuable assistance of this bod}- is 
largely due the success which has attended the administra- 
tion of both the Museum and School. 

A fund of $50,000 was placed in trust for the benefit of 
The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art by c^Jt^oAhf NUisfum 
the late Joseph E. Temple, three-fifths of the interest from and secretary 

which is set apart for the purchase of objects of art for the Museum, while two- 
fifths is set apart for the School. This income is a perennial benefaction which 
has enabled the Museum authorities from time to time to secure some of the best 


works of antiquity and of modern art. Many of the most valuable exhibits in the 
Museum bear the label of the Temple trust, and in this manner the memory of 
the donor is constantly being revived. 

The Pennsylvania Museum is widely acknowledged to be one of Philadel- 
phia's most popular institutions. After the lapse of more than a quarter of a 
century it is now recognized to be one of the foremost art museums in the United 
States. Its collections represent every branch of the industrial and fine arts, 
gathered from every section of the globe, but they are particularly rich in speci- 
mens of American art, a field which has not been entered seriously by anv other 
museum. These collections have been extensively used bv the art schools of this 


city in their work, and classes of students are offered every facility for drawing 
and designing from the objects themselves. 

That the public appreciates the educational work of the Museum authorities 
is abundantly demonstrated by the large attendance at Memorial Hall, which 
aggregates 400,000 to 460,000 each year. 

The School of Industrial Art is the direct outcome of the new interest in 
industrial art, created by the great exhibition of 1876, which brought home to 
Americans, as nothing else had ever done, a sense of the importance to an indus- 
trial community like our own of making liberal provision for instruction in art, 
while the new interest in technical education which was destined to exert so pow- 
erful an influence on our whole educational system demanded that the closest 
association of such instruction with practical industrial aims should be main- 
tained. Practically nothing had been accomplished in this country that could 
be regarded as offering much assistance in the way of furnishing precedents or 
guidance, but the importance of the English example as represented by the 


national system of industrial art education has been recognized from the first, 
and the remarkable progress of technical education in Germany during the last 
half century has been closely studied and the best results of this experience are 
believed to have been embodied in the meth- 
ods of the School. The principle recognized 
by its founders as fundamental to all suc- 
cess in industrial education is that while a 
thorough training in drawing, painting and 
modeling, as taught in the best schools 
everywhere, is essential, it is yet possible 
and, indeed, indispensable to combine with 
this training a good deal of practical illus- 
tration in the more important forms of 
craftsmanship, and especially those offering 
the most artistic possibilities. Even if it 
was to be regarded as the main object of the 
School to serve as a school of design, such 
technical training was thought to be indispensable for the reason that intelligent 
and practical design is not possible except under the influence of that reaction 
on artistic ideals which is produced by actual contact with the methods and mate- 
rials employed in industrial processes. But the School aims to do much more 
than serve as a school of design. Enough effort had been expended in attempts 
to teach design alone before 1876 to show that what was most needed here in 
America was something more radical than that, namely, the development of the 


kind of skill on which not design alone but execution depends. It was recog- 
nized that no matter how tasteful our designs might be, the effect on our indus- 
tries would be insignificant if the industries themselves were not improved and 
if the men engaged in actual production were not to be reached and influenced 
by the new education. 

This idea is at the bottom of the most significant reforms in the educational 
methods, not only of America, but of Europe as well, that have been brought 
about within the last twenty-five years, and in the promotion of which a con- 
spicuous part has been played by the School of Industrial Art of the Pennsyl- 
vania Museum. 


It has frankly accepted existing commercial and industrial conditions not 
only as things to be tolerated, but as actually furnishing the truest inspiration 
and the safest guides. It believes that industrial education to be practical should 
be based on present needs and should concern itself with 
processes and conditions which actually prevail here and 
now. Acting on this principle the laboratory method has 
been developed and extended in ways, and to an extent, that 
was unheard and undreamed of when the School was first 
established. Shops for wood-work and carving, for metal- 
work and leather-work — including bookbinding — a pottery- 
furnished with a kiln in which wares of commercial sizes and 
in commercial quantities can be fired, model cotton and 
woolen textile mills, including spinning plants and a dye- 
house as well as weave-rooms, and an exceptionally complete 
department of chemistry form parts of the equipment as 
essential and as constantly in use as the lecture-rooms or studios. 

Established by private initiative alone, the School was supported during the 
first ten years of its existence ( 1877 to 1887) entirely by private contributions 
from the officers and trustees, supplemented by the dues of a small contributing 
membership and the tuition fees of pupils, which, however, amounted at most 
to only about three thousand dollars ($3,000) a year, and which during the first 


five years of the School's history may almost be regarded as a negligible quan- 
tity, its founders having aimed to make the instruction free. Even the establish- 
ment and equipment in 1884 of the Textile School, which represented an 
expenditure of some thirty thousand dollars, was accomplished by the efforts 
and to a large extent by the private generosity of Mr. Search, who was at that 
time Chairman of the Committee on Instruction, aided by many of the most 
public-spirited manufacturers of the city, but entirely without public or official 
assistance of any kind. 




The Associate Committee of Women, under the chairmanship of Mrs. E. D. 
Gillespie, also rendered most efficient service, and contributed, during the first 
few years of its existence, at least thirty thousand dollars ($30,000) toward the 

©maintenance of the School. 
An appropriation of five thousand dollars ($5,000) a 
year, which was made by the State in 1887 and which has 
either been continued or increased by each succeeding Legis- 
lature, has made possible the extension of the School's work, 
which has been steady and continuous ever since. 
Coupled with the first State appropriation was the estab- 
lishment of seventy-nine free scholarships, appointments to 
which are made by the Governor. Fifteen free scholarships 
were also placed at the disposal of the Board of Public Edu- 
cation of the city of Philadelphia in 1880 and the number 
\vas afterwards increased to fifty-one. In 1896 the city made 
an appropriation of $7,500 toward the support of the School, 
which amount has since been increased at different times 
until it now amounts to $15,000 for the current year. 

Both day and evening classes are maintained. In 1880 
the registration in both classes amounted to less than 100 and 
the Principal was the only instructor. The registration now 
amounts to upwards of 1 .000 and the corps of instructors to 
thirty-eight. The strength of the School and the extent of 
its service is, however, best measured by its graduates, hun- 
dreds of whom are filling important positions and perform- 
ing most valuable service as artists, architects, manufac- 
turers, designers, superintendents and teachers, who are mak- 
ing its influence felt in every section of the commonwealth and of the country. 



Until recently there has been no way by which a student so desiring could 
gain a knowledge of practical pottery making other than by entering some pot- 
tery as a worker, and even that means has been lost by the development of the 
modern system of specialization which confines the work of each helper to some 
small detail of the process. 

The revival within the last decade or so of the spirit that demands simple 
technique, combined with good taste, has opened the door, so long barred, 
through which the teaching of the actual processes can be successfully intro- 
duced. Such instruction brought to the students of an industrial art school 
equips them with the knowledge of actual conditions that enables them to take 
their places, either as designers and decorators in the larger potteries, or as indi- 
vidual art workers. They are thus strongly fortified by that sympathy with the 
technical processes that will be the real means of raising ceramic design to a 
higher standard. 




Instruction is given on the following 
subjects : 

The different varieties of clays, how 
and where found, the elements of which 
they are composed and their physical 

The simple theory and practice of 
preparing, washing and tempering, to 
obtain desired results. 

Methods of forming, beginning with 
the simplest and oldest, the hand model- 
ing, and developing more slowly the use 
of the potter's wheel. 

The different methods of decora- 
tion : The incised, the relief and the slip- 

The application of the glaze coating, accomplished in several ways, each of 
which requires considerable skill. Study of glaze composition is important to 
the student who expects to do individual work in ceramics, and with proper 
direction, criticism and aid this subject may be greatly simplified. 

The process of burning is one of the most delicate, and requires the actual 
experience that can only be had from the observation of a number of different 
firings of the kiln. 

The work accomplished in the Pottery Class of the School of Industrial 

Art has been along the line of form, 
with the understanding and manipula- 
tion of materials. A raw clay, as it 
comes from the bank, is pulverized 
and soaked in tubs, and then sieved. 
This creamy liquid is poured into 
plaster-of-paris basins that absorb the 
moisture, and as it becomes stiff, so 
that it is no longer sticky, it is 
removed and ready to beat and knead 
for use. 

The student, having made a small 
sketch and submitted it, then draws it 
full size on a piece of cardboard, cut- 
ting it out carefully to use as a guide. 
This is to make clear the manner of 
executing a piece of pottery from a 
drawing, as well as to illustrate the 
shapes that are most naturally pottery 
forms, students often having observed 
pleasing lines in metal work, for 
instance, that are not at all suited to 
clay working. 
coiling a vase by hand The first movement is to beat a 




lump of clay into a layer of the proper 
diameter and thickness for the base of 
the piece contemplated. Another lump, 
rolled into a long even rope, is coiled 
around the edges and when the cir- 
cumference has been entirely built up 
the end of the clay rope is broken off 
and the surface is modeled and 
smoothed with the fingers so as to 
strengthen the joints. With constant 
reference to the cardboard guide, the 
piece is modeled with great care until 
it conforms (as nearly as the student's 
skill will allow) to the design. 

A knowledge of this process, the 
oldest form of pottery making, enables 
the student to obtain results that are 
stimulating to further effort. It is also 
an encouragement to the study of the 
use of the potter's wheel, which repre- 
sents the hand working along exactly 
the same lines, with the aid of the cen- 
trifugal force. It is also the process by 
which all art forms, varying from the 
round, are of necessity executed, even 
design in quantity by moulding. Having 
the raw material, the student is encouraged to undertake more important work. 

The pieces made in the class are examined and the best selected for firing in 
the kiln. This kiln, built on the most modern principles, is heated with oil and 
takes from sixteen to twenty hours to fire the clay to 1180 degrees Celsius, at 
which heat it becomes hard. 

The biscuit pieces ( as they are called from their resemblance to a baked 
biscuit) are then returned to the student for the application of the color and 
glaze. The simplest method of decoration is by means of colored glazes. There 
is also the underglaze decoration, in which the design is painted on the clay, and 
a transparent glaze melted over all. The pieces are then replaced in the kiln, 
protected as much as possible from the flames by clay boxes or saggers, and fired 
to about 1 100 degrees Celsius. The heat thoroughly melts the glaze and gives 
the proper completing finish. This part of the process is the most uncertain, as 
difficulties often arise that it is impossible to foresee, but with 
proper direction, prepared to deal with such problems, they must 
yield to a careful study of conditions. 

The management of the kiln is observed by the student, the 
principles and difficulties and their causes and remedies discussed, 
Mark used or, and the desired qualities fully explained. 

Pc " e,y The study of glazes is the most difficult part of ceramics, and 

means that the worker desiring to originate and perfect his own glaze combina- 
tions must expect to devote considerable time to this as a special study, aside 
from the learning of the actual use of the clay and fire. 

when it is desired to reproduce a 
gained confidence in the working- of 


Of the work already accomplished, last year's half season course produced 
some garden-pot forms that were decidedly interesting both in design and color. 
These larger pieces are of course all hand made, and in spite of the very limited 
time that can be devoted to the work, the careful observer can see that the student 
obtains a knowledge of pottery making based on no one style, but combining the 
best of all, coupled with an understanding of the practical work, such as students 
in this country have never before had an opportunity of acquiring. 

The next quarter century will undoubtedly see a great advance in industrial 
art, a movement in which pottery will certainly take a leading part. 

Leon Volkmar, 

Instructor in Charge. 




The second of the two great divisions of ancient lace, called "Pillow," as its 
name indicates, was (and is) made on a pillow with bobbins and, as I said in 
the preceding article, upon examination with the magnifying glass, resembles a 
piece of cambric, in contrast to Point lace, which, upon a similar investigation, 
proves to be composed of countless buttonhole stitches. As Point lace was 
evolved from embroidery, and, through various processes of needlework, became 

at last the product of the buttonhole 
stitch, so we find the ancestry of Pillow 
lace in the twisting and plaiting of rope, 
cord, twine, braid, etc. We know that 
rope was used thousands of years ago in 
Egypt, Assyria, India, etc., and we see 
depicted on the Greek vases the braided 
fillets of gold, silver and silk worn by the 
women in their hair. These are but two 
examples of twisting and plaiting, but 
they show the origin of Pillow lace. 

We notice frequently in pictures of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that 
the borders of veils ( generally of tissue, 
silk or linen) worn by women are 
trimmed with a narrow braid made into 
small loops giving a light and lacy effect 
to the edge of the veil, and this first 
attempt at lace was called ''purling." It 
was also used to trim linen collars and the ruffs of men in the sixteenth century. 
Later in that same century, Italy produced a lace known as "Alerletti a Piom- 
bini," meaning lace ( Merletti ), by means of ( a ) leaden bobbins ( Piombini), and 




i i ■iilnl YiitiHAf^O* 

as metal pins began to be in general use at that time, they too formed an impor- 
tant factor in the making of what was at first but a very simple lace. 

Shortly afterward, however, the designers of the Venetian Points made 

tjm mm^^m ^— ^mm im wi^— special patterns for this 

1 product of the pillow and 
.... ••.- W : '•' ,.-•, '" .- . -"%.-.-. bobbins, and the results were 

:•• .:' ,; " % ■ ■ '%■■•*.&%• '■ soon seen in the elaborate 
"•.■-'"'.;.•;'■ _ •• a,,,] lirautiful lace>- i'f ( lenna 

.'.. . am! Milan. At tirM wlu-n 

.• > the m.t<>11n and llowing lines 

hi" the deML;n^ were united 
W!;'%i: ,k '&.- '$y<$te&f'J& ' b. v the "brides" or "ties," 
they slightly resembled the 
Venetian Points, but later 
when a mesh background 
■BMHB^bbb was substituted for these 
Genoese aforesaid short connecting 

seventeenth Century lines their individuality be- 

came more marked. They have frequently been erroneously named "Genoese" 
and "Milanese Guipures," a misnomer given also to other laces which were char- 
acterized by heavy lines (whatever the design might be) on a light background, 
but they are not Guipure, as that was a trimming made with stiff cords of silk, 
flax or metal, bent into waving lines fastened by loops of thread, and while it 
dates back to the sixteenth century, is still made at the present day and is called 

These Genoese and Milanese laces are much sought after to-day, are copied 
extensively in Italy and elsewhere, and to my great surprise I saw last winter 
most exquisite reproductions of these and other laces made by Indian women of 
Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, etc., results of a philanthropic enterprise 
started in 1890 by 
Miss Sybil Carter, 
who with her faithful 
assistants has done 
noble work in devel- 
oping, not only indus- 
try, but intelligent 
ideas, appreciation of 
artistic designing and 
dainty workmanship 
among the women of 
a race in whose pitiful 
life we, as Americans, 
should take an inter- 
est far above all Milanese 

OtherS. Seventeenth Century 

A brief description of the process of making Pillow lace may not be uninter- 
esting and I will describe it as taught to me several years ago at Contrexeville, 
near Mirecourt (in the department of Vosges, France), the" latter town once a 
famous lace-making centre. 



The first step after the design is drawn and pricked through the parchment 
is to fasten it to the pillow, held on the lap. or placed on a small table, the ends 
of the threads (which are wound on the bobbins) are then attached to the top 

J* : ..V 

~ - ' v.- 


Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries 

of the parchment pattern, and when the pins are stuck through certain fixed 
points in the design, the work begins of twisting and plaiting the threads in and 
out, among the pins, following always the design until that particular length 
of the pattern is completed. The pins are then taken out, the pattern drawn for- 
ward, the pins reinserted, the twisting and plaiting renewed and so on until the 
lace is finished. 

Of course this description applies particularly to certain narrow simple laces 
like Torchon, etc., by the yard, but the process was virtually the same for the 
finest laces of the olden times. The design elaborated, the finest flax employed, 
the most skillful labor secured, infinite toil expended, often at cost of eyesight 
and even of life, and behold the results in the exquisite lace treasures of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly of Flanders. This country 
certainly distinguished herself in the making of Pillow lace, and while she at first 
availed herself of the Italian pattern books, eminent designers of her own soon 
arose, and as her flax had always been the finest in the world, her Pillow 
laces took precedence of all others in their exquisite delicacy of both design and 
workmanship, notably the Mechlin, Valenciennes, Brussels, Bruges, etc. As 
these laces bear a certain 
resemblance, one to the 

tion of which is always 

most necessary. That of 

Mechlin is composed of a valenciennes 

six-sided mesh, four sides Nineteenth century 

with the thread twisted and two sides plaited. Also the whole or parts of the 

design is invariably outlined with a heavy thread or Cordonnet. 

In Valenciennes the mesh has only four sides and is plaited, but in the 


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so-called "Fausses Valenciennes" ( meaning the lace made in the neighboring 
towns) the mesh was double and of course not so clear nor so beautiful. One 
strong' characteristic never varied, no heavy thread was used, all being of the 

same fine texture. In 
the eighteenth century 
the designs of Valen- 
ciennes and Mechlin 
were so much alike 
that were it not for 
the heavy thread in 
the latter it would be 
extremely difficult to 
distinguish one from 
the other. 

The Brussels Pil- 
low lace has several 
characteristics. The 
mesh background only 
differs from the Mechlin in having the two plaited sides a trifle longer than in 
the latter. The Cordonnet which outlines the designs is plaited instead of being 
merely a heavy thread, and the texture of the designs is much closer, more com- 
pact, more like a piece of cambric when examined through the magnifying glass, 
which, by the way, should always be close at hand in the study of lace. 

Bruges is the title of a very beautiful Flemish lace with a certain resem- 
blance to both Mechlin and Brussels, but the texture of the design is not so close 
as in the latter, is much more transparent, and while the Mechlin laces were 
almost always of a narrow width, those of Bruges were frequently made in the 
various depths of our so-called 

"Point applique" does not 
always indicate a Point lace 
applied to a background of 
net, but more frequently 
means pillow-made flowers, 
leaves and vines, etc., made 
separately and sewed on a deli- 
cate background of net. In 
the eighteenth century the net 
was made of the finest flax, 
but later, after the Jacquard 
loom was invented (1801), 
much of this lace was ap- 
plied to a cotton loom net, 
reducing materially the price "point" applique (Pillow Lacs) 

of the lace, but detracting Ean y Eighteenth century 

much from the pliable and delicate character of the old background. In this 
connection I would like to say how misleading the misuse of the word "Point" 
is in the study of lace. It is applied so often to Pillow laces, and I think that we 



must look for the origin of the mistake in the fact that the early laces, the "Reti- 
cella," the "Punto in Aria," the ''Point de Genes," etc.. were often made in deep 
points, and that consequently laces in general were frequently spoken of as 
"Points,"* without reference to the process by which they were made. 

English "Bone" lace of the seventeenth century was so called on account of 
the bobbins being made of bene (as they were also of wood and lead), and doubt- 
less this lace was very similar to the Merletti a Piombini of Italy, although when 
made in Devonshire it was often of great delicacy and beauty. But the demand 
in England for the very finest laces caused large quantities to be brought from 
Flanders, and Charles II., realizing (as Colbert did in France in regard to the 
Venetian lace Points ) that the vast sums of money sent out of the country would 
soon result in a financial disaster, made a stringent law against the importation 
of foreign lace. Of course smuggling followed the edict ; large quantities of 

Flemish laces were 

chased and 

rht into Eng- 


. .._ , . . , „ _ ,. „ „. .„ , _ , _ sold under the 

^^f^i^^^^V^MlWi name of "Point d-An- 
ffmh&Jjg&tMftd M^fiLll gleterre," another 

jf a Pillow lace, 
The English gov- 
xnment hoping to 
lgthen the home 
ight over many 
ish lace makers, 
them in vari- 
parts of England, 
hon'iton especially Devon- 

Eariy Nineteenth Century shire. Buckingham- 

shire, Exeter, etc., and some of the first pieces of lace made by the Flemish, who 
of course used their own designs and flax, are quite impossible to distinguish 
from those made at the same period in their own country. But the success of 
this movement was neither brilliant nor lasting. True, certain pretty laces are 
still made in Devonshire and other places, but the best known and most beautiful 
English lace now is that of Honiton, which under royal patronage attained a high 
standard of excellence. The graceful designs were first made with a delicate net 
background, but later the flowers and leaves, the scrolls, etc., were connected 
solely with the "ties" of the Venetian Points, the Genoese, Milanese, and all other 
laces with "brides picotees." 

Spain being a lace-loving country, imported not only the Flemish laces, 
in addition to the Italian Points, but also much of the French black and white 
silk lace, which, although called "Spanish Blonde," was first made in France. 
Soon, however, the industry was firmly established throughout Catalonia. 

* "Cette homme est bien en 
Palliser's History of Lace. 

ed to denote a per 


especially at Barcelona, Valencia, etc. The origin of the word "blonde," applied 
indiscriminately to black as well as to white lace, was due to the fact that the 
first examples were made of a light yellow silk. There are several varieties; 
sometimes the designs were darned on the net ; again design and net background 
were made at the same time, and often the net was embroidered with good effect. 
Germany has not distinguished herself in the making of fine Pillow laces. I 
found but few of interest in the museum at Munich and those were mainly all 
from the district of the Erzgebirge (of Barbara Uttmann fame) and were of the 
character of the peasant laces, the Torchon variety, called "household lace." 

Russia's Pillow laces are not important, consisting principally of a rather 
coarse product with but little variation of design which is generally of a cord- 
like combination of threads in waving or venniculated lines, with a large mesh 
background. Occasionally colored silk threads are mingled with other threads 
in the simple designs. 

Early in the eighteenth century some Bone lace was made in Ireland ; later 
the industry declined. The convents and private schools, under the patronage 
of philanthropic and wealthy women, have made very fine reproductions of old 
Venetian Point laces, but the other so-called laces are neither the product of the 
buttonhole stitch nor the pillow. They are "Limerick," a kind of tambour embroi- 
dery, "Carrickmacross," made of muslin cut into designs and caught together by 
stitches. Tatting and, perhaps the most important now, the "Crochet," which, 
although often coarse and unattractive, can be quite striking in effect when 
designs of the old Venetian Points are copied and the finest of thread and crochet 
needle employed. As a trimming, it is now "le dernier cri" among the less 
expensive laces. 

Emily Leland Harrison. 

TAPESTRY — A Glarvce at Flemish and French 


Want of space necessitates the omission of the early history of tapestry, 
that is its appearance five thousand years ago on the banks of the Nile ; its 
appearance in Greece, as woven by Penelope and also by Minerva and Arachne ; 
the rather too florid tales of Oriental tapestry, and the "Sarrazinois." of which 
the "Bayeux" tapestry is an example. This narrows our field down to Flemish 
and French workers, who. when all is said, it must be confessed are the most 

The Flemings are supposed to have wrought at their tapestry looms as early 
as the twelfth century. The French soon competed with them. Then King 
Edward III. of England (1327 to 13//) wickedly brought on the "Hundred 
Years' War" and poor France became desolate. The Flemings prospered by the 
misfortunes of their neighbor, and those cities of Flanders, now so dead, over- 
flowed with busy and most cantankerous workers. Little Arras gave its name to 
the product of their looms. Polonius in Hamlet says : "Behind the Arras I'll 
convey myself." Prince Hal says to Falstaff : "Go hide thee behind the Arras." 

But war and greedy kings came in time to ruin prosperous little Arras. 



Charles the Bold, the last of those magnificent Dukes of Burgundy, who did so 
much to encourage extravagance and the arts in their native land, was killed at 
Nancy, 1477. Louis XI. of France seized Arras, the workers became turbulent, 

were expelled, and Arras lost forever her prosperity. Brussels rose upon her 
ruins and in turn enjoyed the smiles of fortune, till the wars at the end of the 
eighteenth century and changes of fashion terminated her prosperity also. The 
looms of Brussels turned out products which are among the very finest. Great 
collections of these and other Flemish tapestries are to be found in the palaces of 
Spain, Flanders having been so long under Spanish rulers. Much gold and silk 
was used in tapestry, bearing the mark of the two "B"s ; these, originally, were 
not letters, though easily mistaken for such, but two of the steels, from the flint 
and steel badge of the old Dukes of Burgundy, as seen on the collar of their 
order of the Golden Fleece. The whole mark is visible on the outer, blue border 
of the larger tapestry, dating about the early part of the eighteenth century, 
forming one of our illustrations ; the other, smaller, is earlier ; both are from 
specimens in the Museum collections. 

In England the factory at Mortlake, founded by Francis Crane (died 1623), 
in the reign of James I., flourished for a time till war ended it also. It is impos- 
sible, for want of space, to glance at the work of William Morris and Burne- 
Jones, who, in our own day, did so much to take the art back to its best epoch, 
the fifteenth century, or even at still more celebrated Beauvais. 

In 1 541 King Francis I. of France, who reveled in building, in decorating 
palaces, and in war. in which latter he was far from successful, established. 



amid his other workers engaged at Fontainbleau, a small colony of Flemish tap- 
estry weavers. This was the first royal manufactory in France. The privileges 
given the various bands of Flemings who were enticed into France show plainly 
their importance and value. The master workers were ennobled, the pay of all 
was high, they were freed for long terms from taxes and, most cherished of all, 
they were allowed to brew their own beer, in their own way, and to drink as 
much of it as they wished, in their own way. No foreign tapestry was allowed 
to enter France, all such was seized at the frontier and destroyed. 

Henry II. continued the work and founded the manufactory of the Trinity, 
in Paris, about where the church of that name now stands. As usual, war put 
an end to the work. Then gal- 
lant Henry IV. appeared ( died 
1610) and said: "I want all my 
peasantry to have a fowl in the 
pot every Sunday." To bring 
this about he planted the mul- 
berry and introduced the silk- 
worm, so that to him is due the 
credit for most of the textile 
prosperity of France. 

A family of dyers, probably 
from Rheims, migrated to Paris 
in the fifteenth century and 
established themselves in one of 
the faubourgs, on the banks of 
the Bievre. Jehan Gobelins, the 
first head of the works, discov- 
ered a wonderful scarlet dye ; 
some say the devil taught him 
the secret on the usual terms and 
eventually carried him off mid 
the usual sulphurous fumes. The 
family prospered greatly. Ana- 
tole Gobelins became Marquis of 

Brinvilliers and married sweet in the Penr !y ivania Museum 

little Marguerite d'Aubrai — who 

outdid the Borgias as a poisoner. In 1630 the tapestry establishment came to its 
final abiding place at the Gobelins. In 1662 Colbert, the great minister of Louis 
XIV. bought the works for the state, and they became "Manufacture Royalle des 
Meubles de la Couronne." Louis' orders were, "the Superintendent of our 
buildings and the directors under him will keep the manufactory full of g'ood 
painters, master tapissiers of the high-warp loom, goldsmiths, founders, engrav- 
ers, lapidaires, sculptors in ebony and other woods, dyers, * * *." Charles 
Le Brun ( 1619 to 1690), the great painter, was named director and prosperity, 
tempered by war, ensued. 

The works made a narrow escape at the great revolution. The ferocious 
Marat insisted on the inalienable "Rights of Man," one of which was that his 
effigy should not be trodden under foot even in a carpet — his abbreviation by a 



head did not, according to Marat, entail any loss of dignity, though, possibly, 
annoying. Napoleon dated some of his edicts for the rehabilitation of the Gobe- 
lins from his great battle-fields. Napoleon understood the effect of high comedy 
on his gay countrymen. The brutal, insensate Communards, in 1871, inflicted 
irreparable loss ; ancient models and many noble tapestries were wantonly 

A few words about the Raphael tapestries, the most celebrated existing. 
They were designed by the great painter, and seven of the original cartoons, 
bought by Rubens for King Charles I., are at Hampton Court, near London, and 
are much admired by those who like them. The tapestries were intended to 
decorate the Sistine Chapel. The cartoons were sent (1515) to Peter van Aelst, 
prince of Flemish weavers, and were finished in three years, wonderfully quick 
work. After Pope Leo X.'s death (1522) the tapestries were pawned. In 1527 
Rome was captured by the Constable de Bourbon and the tapestries were car- 
ried off. Repurchased by Pope Julius III. in 1553. Again stolen by the French 
in 1798. One was burned by a Genoese Jew for the gold in it ; two wandered off 
to Constantinople. In 1808 the ten which remain were bought (for the third 
time) by Pope Pius VII. and now decorate the "Galeria degli Arazzi," in the 
Vatican, Rome. During the siege of 1849 two balls penetrated the gallery but 
did no damage. A second series of thirteen was executed by order of King 
Francis I. (of France) to decorate the basilica of St. Peter. These cartoons were 
by Giulio Romano and others of Raphael's pupils. 

Before the days of Raphael, the artist-weaver (for want of a better word) 
was left much freedom both in design and color, resulting in those superbly 
rich decorative hangings of the fifteenth century, the best epoch of tapestry. 
From Raphael's day the artist sent his painted pictures to the weaver to be copied 
exactly into another medium, for which they were usually quite unfitted. The 
result was huge, empty landscapes with great expanse of sky, usually soiled, or 
even worse, the series of portraits in the Gallery of Apollo (Museum of the 
Louvre, Paris) which could have been done far better and far cheaper in oil. 

I add a few prices of tapestry realized at recent sales. Six chairs and a sofa, 
the backs and seats in Gobelins, $50,000 offered and refused ; $250,000 paid for 
"four panels, Gobelins, by Lancret, twelve chairs and a sofa." Four arm- 
chairs, Beauvais; francs, 157,000 (say, $31,400). Sofa, Beauvais ; francs, 60,000 
(say, $12,000). Beauvais tapestry panel, by Boucher; francs, 140,000 (say, 
$28,000). Four Gobelins panels; francs, 76,400 (say, $15,280) each. 

Charles E. Dana. 




The Museum has two available funds for the purchase of desirable art 
objects, known as the Temple fund and the Offertory fund, the first being the 
income from the Joseph E. Temple trust and the second received from visitors 
who have shown appreciation and interest in the work of the Museum by depos- 
iting small sums in boxes provided for the purpose. For some time past these 
funds have been allowed to accumulate and have made it possible to secure some 
of the treasures gathered together from all sections of the world at the St. Louis 
Exposition of 1904. Among the many beautiful things which have been pur- 
chased for the Museum are the following : 

A jar of old Persian pottery decorated in dull blues, greens and browns, and 
of unusually large size. The motives are conventionalized flowers and leaves 
arranged in vertical panels. 

Vase of enamel on metal with pale buff ground shading above into terra 
cotta. The cloisonne decoration consists of birds and foliage in natural colors 
and of almost life size. This is a superb example of Japanese art. It measures 
thirty-nine inches in height, or forty-seven inches, including the carved teakwood 

Large incense burner of Satsuma pottery with three feet, handles and cover. 
This is entirely in cream white without any color, the decoration consisting 
entirely of carving and reticulation. The body and lid are beautifully honey- 
combed, while the bands of carved work extend around the circumference, and 
two medallions on each side show conventionalized dragons and howo birds. 

Bronze figure of elephant standing on a thin section of polished natural 
wood. The modeling is exquisitely done, to the very finest details, showing dis- 
tinctly the corrugations and texture of the skin and 
the markings of the nails of the toes. 

A series of tin-enameled (Delft) ware, pottery 
and porcelain, showing the latest achievements in 
mat and colored glazes, metallic lusters and under- 
glaze painting of the modern Dutch potters. 

A Sevres vase decorated by Taxile Doat. The 
surface is covered with mat glaze of a flowing 
red-brown on a pale green, with incised decoration 
of pomegranates. Around the centre is an incised 
and relief band containing panels and medallions of 
pate-sur-pate painting in white on a gray-green 
ground. The subjects are boys gathering fruit. 
This work is in Air. Doat's best style and the vase is 
a valuable addition to the Museum's collection of 
pate-sur-pate work. 

Another piece by the same artist is a plaque 
nineteen and a half inches in diameter with relief 
decoration of plum blossoms and leaves and five 

raised panels in Sevres blue with pate-sur-pate paintings in high relief represent- 
ing processions of female figures. 

A curious piece of glass by the celebrated French artist, Emile Galle, illus- 




trates the happy adaptation of an accident in securing a highly artistic effect. 
The piece is a glass vase of moss-agate-like or opalescent substance, beneath the 
surface of which are scattered brown and white dendritic mottlings which, in 
one place, have taken the form of the outstretched 
wings and a portion of the body of a dragon fly. 
M. Galle has seized upon this suggestion for a 
motive to perfect in the glass and on the surface 
a most realistic design of a large dragon fly. The 
gauze-like effect of the wings has been increased 
by engraving on the surface, immediately above 
the mottling in the glass, the delicate outlines and 
veinings of the wings, while to complete the 
design he has added on the surface the long 
jointed body of the insect which is made more 
realistic by silvery and opalescent effects. For 
eyes he has added two topaz-tinted globes. The 
vase itself is an excellent representation of water 
and air, the lower part having a pale blue and 
iridescent coloring, while the upper portion gives 
the impression of atmosphere in which the dragon 
fly is poised, while the brown and white mottlings 
are suggestive of clouds. 

This beautiful example of carved work in 
glass will become more valuable as the years go 
by, on account of the death of M. Galle, which 
took place during the past year. 

Large Japanese pottery vase, relief and open- 
By Emiie Gaiie, Nancy, France work decoration representing foliage. This re- 
ceived a gold medal at the St. Louis Fair. 
Vase, pottery, covered with rose-pink flow glazes. From the Ruskin Pot- 
tery, England. 

Examples of blown glass. Venetian style. From the Whitefriars Glass 
Works, England. 

Figure of ape, ten inches in height. Beaten out of a thin sheet of iron by 
hand. This piece was accompanied by a similar example only partially finished. 
This was presented by the Japan Exhibit Company to the Museum, to show the 
repousse process, by which the figure was produced. 

All of the above mentioned objects were purchased on account of the 
Temple fund, with the exception of the large cloisonne vase, which was bought 
on account of the Offertory fund, from the Museum contribution boxes. 



Porcelain plate with polychrome decoration imitating cloisonne enamel, 
modern Russian; two vases, rouge flambe glaze, made by Doulton & Co., Eng- 
land ; a series of Siamese. African and Egyptian musical instruments ; all pur- 
chased on account of the Temple trust. 


Musical instruments given by Mrs. William D. Frishmuth ; Colonial relics 
added to her Colonial collection. 

Two small porcelain vases with mat and crystalline glazes. Made and given 
by the Robineau Pottery, Syracuse, New York. 

Four examples of art pottery with modeled figure decoration and mat glazes. 
Made by the Van Briggle Pottery Company, of Colorado Springs, Colorado. 
Presented by Mr. John T. Morris. 

A valuable collection, consisting of one hundred and thirty examples of gold 
and silver laces, fringes and gimps of French and Italian workmanship, of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, principally of the period of Louis XVI. 
This collection, the gift of Mr. Samuel B. Dean, of Boston, will be described 
and illustrated in the next number of the Bulletin. 

From Mrs. John Harrison, a majolica tazza of the eighteenth century, 
Talavera, Spain ; also a fine example of antique engraved glass, German. From 
Mr. John Harrison, a stanniferous faience plate with painted and gilded decora- 
tions. French. 



This Museum is the first in this country to undertake to furnish opinions to 
inquirers relative to objects of art. Since the establishment of a Bureau of Iden- 
tification here, many owners of such objects have either applied in person or for- 
warded their specimens to the Museum for examination. The greater number 
of inquiries have related to pieces of pottery and porcelain, although much infor- 
mation has been furnished in other departments of art. 

A large number of dark blue Staffordshire plates with American views have 
been submitted by collectors, many of which have been found to be modern 
reproductions. It is well known that a gang of counterfeiters has been for some 
time flooding the country with these worthless imitations at high prices. The 
majority of these counterfeits come from a southern city and some of them are 
such close imitations of the old pieces that only experts can distinguish the false 
from the genuine. So abundant have these fraudulent pieces become that the 
majority of collectors have lost interest in their specialty, having become sus- 
picious of everything which is being offered. It would seem that the counter- 


feiters have overreached themselves and have seriously injured, if they have 
not killed, the goose that laid the golden egg. Some of these criminals are 
known, but for some unaccountable reason their victims have not yet called them 
to account. Suspicious pieces may be forwarded to this Museum and an opinion 
will be cheerfully furnished. 


The time has arrived when the museums of this country, in order to keep 
abreast with modern progress, must enter into closer relations with each other 
than have existed in the past. Heretofore the work of museums has been of a 
more or less desultory character and each curator has been a law unto himself. 
Some museums have advanced slowly in one direction, some in others, but the 
little progress that has been made in individual cases has, through the following 
of a narrow policy, failed to increase the educational influence of these institu- 
tions at large. The physician, the educator, the librarian, the specialist, who 
holds aloof from his fellow workers, is left behind in the race, his methods 
become antiquated and his usefulness abridged. In this age of organization, of 
conventions and congresses, the best effort of the individual results only in an 
insignificant contribution to the total of human knowledge. Men meet together 
at stated periods to communicate their discoveries to their fellows and to learn 
what has been accomplished by others in wider fields. Thus the individual 
receives the benefit of the work of the many, which aids and inspires him to far 
greater achievement. 

To accomplish the greatest amount of good, it will be necessary for the 
curators of the various American museums to meet together periodically for the 
interchange of ideas looking toward the improvement of methods relating to 
classification, the arrangement of exhibits, the best system of labeling and the 
exchange of desirable duplicates which are unavoidably accumulated by every 
large museum. 

The suggestion is here offered that curators of our various museums, from 
Boston to San Francisco, meet together annually for the consideration of subjects 
relating to the most effective administration of public museums. By holding 
these meetings in turn in the various cities where important museums exist, a 
knowledge of what is being accomplished throughout the United States will be 
obtained and the entire museum system of the country will be greatly benefited. 
The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art is ready to take the 
initiative and the Curator will be glad to receive the views of the directors and 
curators of other museums on this subject. 



Herr Paul Gesell, Counsellor and Director of the Royal Saxon China Manu- 
factory at Meissen, Germany, recently paid a visit to this Museum and was much 
interested in examining the specimens of Meissen porcelain in the collections. 

M. Taxile Doat, of the National Manufactory of Sevres, France, has 
announced to the Curator of the Museum his intention of visiting the United 
States during the present year and of making a special visit to Philadelphia for 
the purpose of inspecting the collections of Sevres porcelain possessed by this 
Museum. M. Doat is one of the most accomplished ceramists in the world. 
It is his desire that this Museum shall be given a special opportunity to secure 
from time to time some of the best pieces produced at that factory. In the 
article on purchases at the St. Louis Fair, in this number, will be seen an illus- 
tration of M. Doat's pate-sur-pate painting. 

Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, of New York, has presented to the library of the 
Museum a copy of the superb Catalogue of the Morgan Collection of Chinese 
Porcelains, illustrated with seventy-seven beautifully executed color plates. Only 
250 copies have been printed. This work, which contains a large amount of 
authoritative information on ( )riental wares, was prepared by Mr. W. M. Laffan, 
one of the foremost experts on Chinese porcelains in this country. The volume, 
which is of octavo size, is exquisitely bound in dark green crushed levant, 
imported especially from France, with gold tooling and silk doubles. It bears 
the imprint of Robert Crier Cook, New York City. 

The admissions to the Museum during 1904 reached 384.321. The falling 
off in the number of visitors from the previous year may be explained by the 
large number of inclement days during 1904, particularly Sundays. The Sunday 
afternoon attendance, however, amounted to fifty-seven per cent, of the total 

By the establishment of a system of scholarships in the Textile School the 
firm of A. B. Kirschbaum & Co., one of the largest and most important firms 
in the clothing business in this country, have given a most generous expression 
of their endorsement of the School and its work. The administration of these 
scholarships has been left with the School staff, one scholarship to be awarded 
annually to that member of the Freshman Class who has made the best record 
in the year's work, and to hold good for the remaining two years of the regular 
course, if properly renewed, provided the student's record continues satisfactory. 


Mr. Harlan J, Maynard, a graduate of the Textile School, who has already 
achieved notable success in the field of silk manufacture in this city and who 
was the first one to successfully undertake the manufacture of silk hat-bands in 
this country, is to establish a silk mill in Italy, where a number of important pat- 
ents which he controls have warranted him in entering into competition with the 
German manufacturers on their own ground. Mr. Maynard's venture is of 
great economic importance and its outcome will be watched with interest on both 
sides of the water. 

Under tbe auspices of the Alumni Association of the School of Industrial 
Art an exhibition was held in January of the work in sculpture of Miss Meta 
Vaux Warrick, a graduate of the School, who has, since leaving the School, 
enjoyed the advantages of two years of foreign study. In February an exhibi- 
tion of the commercial and newspaper decorative and advertising work of Mr. 
Clarence H. Rowe and Mr. Charles Henckels was held. These exhibitions by 
keeping past and present pupils of the School in touch with one another, and by 
emphasizing the connection between the work of the School and the practical 
work to follow, and for which the School is a preparation, are performing a most 
valuable service to the School, the importance of which can not easily be over- 

Miss Sophie B. Steel, who has been for several years in charge of the 
classes in illustration, sailed in February for the Mediterranean, to be gone until 
the autumn. While abroad, Miss Steel will make a special study of the pictur- 
esque life in the more out-of-the-way portions of Italy and Sicily, and will also 
make a collection of photographs that will be of assistance and inspiration to her 
classes in the School. 

The Museum recently received a visit from Mr. Frederick Rathbone, of 
London, England, the noted Wedgwood expert, who came especially to see the 
old Wedgwood in the Bloomfield Moore collection, many examples of which 
he assisted Mrs. Moore in procuring a quarter of a century ago. 

The exhibit of work of the students of the School, which occupies the North 
Vestibule of the building, has been rearranged and enlarged by a portion of the 
material shown at St. Louis. Many fine examples of metal work, carved furni- 
ture and a case of pottery add greatly to the appearance of this display. 



Mr. John Story Jexrs, Chairman 

Dr.. Alfred C. Lambdin - 

Mr. John- T. Morris 

Mr. William Platt Pepper 

Miss Anna Blanchard 


Mrs. W- T. Carter 
Mrs. Wm. D. Frishmuth , 
Mrs. John Harrison 
Miss Fannie S". Magee ' 
Miss Elizabeth C. Roberts 


Textiles, Lace and Embroidery. .-. , : .Mrs. John Harrison 

Oriental Pottery Mrs. Jones Wister 

. European Porcelain , Rev. Alfred Duane Pell 

Arms .and Armor Cornelius Stevenson 

Furniture and Woodwork . Gustave Ketterer 

Musical Instruments Mrs. W. D. Frishmuth- 

Prints, Book Plates and" Historic Seals , .Charles E. Dana; 

Numismatics .-. . , ,F. D. Langenbeim 

Philately . Edward Russell Jones 

Goldsmith Work, Jewelry and Plate Charles Gbdney- King 




Mrs. John Harrison 


Mrs. David E. Dallam 

Mrs. Fbank K.Hipple 

Miss Ellen McMurtrie 


C. Cheyney-Bactol 
C. William Bergner , - 
•Anna Blanchard ... •. 
Rudolph- Blankenbukc 
John H. Brinton ' 
Wm. T. Carter 
Margaret Clyde 
Margaret L.. Corliss 
Ada M. Crozer 
.Edward P. Davis - 

Mrs. Rodman B. Ellison Mr 

Miss Jui.ia G. Ewing Mrs. 

Mrs. Wm, D. Frisbma;th : Mrs. 

Mrs. W. W. GibbS' Miss 

Mrs. Joseph Harrison Mrs. 

Mrs. Robert Millar Janney Mrs. 

Mrs. J. L. Ketterlinus - , . Mrs. 
Miss Nina Lea . ' ' ' Mrs. 

Miss Fannie Si Magee ■■'-'■ "Mrs. 

Mrs. S. P. S;. ..Mitchell; >.':' Miss 
Mrs, Daniel S. New hall 

Edward H_Ogden 
Richard Peters, Jr. 
•Thomas Roberts,' 
Elizabeth C Roberi 
Joseph F. Sinnott 
John B. Stetson - 
Jqhn, Wister 
Jones Wister 
George Wood 
H.A. Zell 

the Ivy Leaf in Sa